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Institutions V Geography Sub National Evidence From The United States Epub

Autor: Alma Romero-Barrutieta
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1452756198
File Size: 20,13 MB
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Empirical studies of the impact of geography and institutions on growth and development at the international level have become common place, but the high degree of abstraction at that level has led to calls for subnational studies. This paper examines these issues for a region of the United States, Appalachia, where the specific factors at play are identified and measured thus obviating the need for instrumental variable techniques. The evidence suggests that initial conditions, including both geography and institutions, are very important for economic development, having significant effects lasting hundreds of years.

Institutions Rule The Primacy Of Institutions Over Integration And Geography In Economic Development Epub

Autor: Mr. Arvind Subramanian
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1452749175
File Size: 17,88 MB
Format: PDF
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We estimate the respective contributions of institutions, geography, and trade in determining cross-country income levels using recently developed instruments for institutions and trade. Our results indicate that the quality of institutions "trumps" everything else. Controlling for institutions, geography have at best weak direct effects on incomes, although it has a strong indirect effect through institutions. Similarly, controlling for institutions, trade has a negative, albeit, insignificant direct effect on income, although trade too has a positive effect on institutional quality. We relate our results to recent literature, and where differences exist, trace their origins to choices on samples, specification, and instrumentation.

New Age Of Sustainable Capitalism

Autor: Stuart L. Hart
Publisher: FT Press
ISBN: 0133445526
File Size: 17,78 MB
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A brand new collection of cutting-edge guides to sustainable capitalism Translate sustainability and “base of the pyramid” strategies into real profits It’s time for capitalism’s next reinvention. In the new Third Edition of his best-selling Capitalism at the Crossroads, Third Edition, Stuart L. Hart reveals tomorrow’s capitalism. He presents new case studies and practical strategies for building companies that are more sustainable, build deeper roots in their markets, play a central role in solving social and environmental problems – and are far more profitable. Hart helps you identify sustainable products and technologies that will drive urgently needed growth and help solve social and environmental problems at the same time. Drawing on his experience consulting with top companies and NGOs worldwide, he shows how to craft your optimal sustainability strategy, and overcome the pitfalls of traditional ‘greening’ approaches. This edition presents new and updated case studies from the US and beyond, demonstrating what’s working and what isn’t. It also guides business leaders in building an “infrastructure for sustainability” – one that can survive budgeting and boardrooms, recharging innovation and growth throughout your enterprise. Next, in the 5th Anniversary Edition of his classic The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid , C.K. Prahalad reveals all that’s been learned about competing and profiting “at the bottom of the pyramid.” Prahalad outlines the latest strategies and tactics that companies are utilizing to succeed in the developing world. He interviews innovative CEOs to discuss what they’ve learned from their own initiatives, including the Unilever business leader who’s built a billion-dollar business in India. You’ll find a new case study on Jaipur Rugs’ innovative new global supply chain; updates to earlier editions’ key cases; and up-to-the-minute information on key industries such as wireless, agribusiness, healthcare, consumer goods, and finance. Prahalad also offers an up-to-date assessment of the key questions his ideas raised: Is there truly a market? Is there scale? Is there profit? Is there innovation? Is this a global opportunity? Five years ago, executives could hope the answers to these questions would be positive. Now, as Prahalad demonstrates, they can be certain of it. From the world-renowned experts in sustainable capitalism Stuart L. Hart and C.K. Prahalad

Evolution And Medicine

Autor: Robert Perlman
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191637807
File Size: 27,12 MB
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Evolution and Medicine provides an accessible introduction to the new field of evolutionary medicine. Evolutionary concepts help explain why we remain vulnerable to disease, how pathogens and cancer cells evolve, and how the diseases that affected our evolutionary ancestors have shaped our biology. The book interweaves the presentation of evolutionary principles with examples that illustrate how an evolutionary perspective enhances our understanding of disease. It discusses the theory of evolution by natural selection, the genetic basis of evolutionary change, evolutionary life history theory, and host-pathogen coevolution, and uses these concepts to provide new insights into diseases such as cystic fibrosis, cancer, sexually transmitted diseases, and malaria, incorporating the latest research in rapidly developing fields such as epigenetics and the study of the human microbiome. The book concludes with a discussion of the ways in which recent, culturally constructed changes in the human environment are increasing the prevalence of man-made diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, and are exacerbating socioeconomic disparities in health. Just as evolutionary biology is concerned with populations and with changes in populations over time, evolutionary medicine is concerned with the health of populations. Evolution and Medicine emphasizes the role of demographic processes in evolution and disease, and stresses the importance of improving population health as a strategy for improving the health of individuals. This accessible text is written primarily for physicians, biomedical scientists, and both premedical and medical students, and will appeal to all readers with a background or interest in medicine.