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Static Mixers For Coagulation And Disinfection

Autor: A. Amirtharajah
Publisher: American Water Works Association
ISBN: 158321111X
File Size: 27,81 MB
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Static mixers are an attractive alternative for the mixing of chemicals in water treatment plants. The attraction comes from the fact that static mixers do not require an external input of energy and do not have moving parts. Static mixers consist of mixing elements fixed on the inside of a pipe of channel. The elements do not move. Chemicals, added just upstream of the mixers, mix with the bulk fluid because of the complex, three-dimensional fluid motion generated by the elements. The goal of this project is to explore the use of static mixers in two of the key processes in drinking water treatment: for the mixing of coagulants for destabilization and the mixing of disinfectants for the inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in disinfection. The role of mixing in both of these processes is not well understood. But for each process experimental and theoretical evidence suggests that, at least in some circumstances, the mixing environment provided when chemicals are introduced into the flow will affect the resulting destabilization or inactivation.

Mechanical Behavior Of Engineering Materials

Autor: Y.M. Haddad
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792363545
File Size: 15,83 MB
Format: PDF
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This monograph consists of two volumes and provides a unified, comprehensive presentation of the important topics pertaining to the understanding and determination of the mechanical behaviour of engineering materials under different regimes of loading. The large subject area is separated into eighteen chapters and four appendices, all self-contained, which give a complete picture and allow a thorough understanding of the current status and future direction of individual topics. Volume I contains eight chapters and three appendices, and concerns itself with the basic concepts pertaining to the entire monograph, together with the response behaviour of engineering materials under static and quasi-static loading. Thus, Volume I is dedicated to the introduction, the basic concepts and principles of the mechanical response of engineering materials, together with the relevant analysis of elastic, elastic-plastic, and viscoelastic behaviour. Volume II consists of ten chapters and one appendix, and concerns itself with the mechanical behaviour of various classes of materials under dynamic loading, together with the effects of local and microstructural phenomena on the response behaviour of the material. Volume II also contains selected topics concerning intelligent material systems, and pattern recognition and classification methodology for the characterization of material response states. The monograph contains a large number of illustrations, numerical examples and solved problems. The majority of chapters also contain a large number of review problems to challenge the reader. The monograph can be used as a textbook in science and engineering, for third and fourth undergraduate levels, as well as for the graduate levels. It is also a definitive reference work for scientists and engineers involved in the production, processing and applications of engineering materials, as well as for other professionals who are involved in the engineering design process.

Exercise Physiology For Health Fitness And Performance

Autor: Sharon Plowman
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISBN: 9780781784061
File Size: 11,37 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This textbook integrates basic exercise physiology with research studies to stimulate learning, allowing readers to apply principles in the widest variety of exercise and sport science careers. It combines basic exercise physiology with special applications and contains flexible organisation of independent units.

Efficient C

Autor: Dov Bulka
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional
ISBN: 9780201379501
File Size: 17,77 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Far too many programmers and software designers consider efficient C++ to be an oxymoron. They regard C++ as inherently slow and inappropriate for performance-critical applications. Consequently, C++ has had little success penetrating domains such as networking, operating system kernels, device drivers, and others. "Efficient C++" explodes that myth. Written by two authors with first-hand experience wringing the last ounce of performance from commercial C++ applications, this book demonstrates the potential of C++ to produce highly efficient programs. The book reveals practical, everyday object-oriented design principles and C++ coding techniques that can yield large performance improvements. It points out common pitfalls in both design and code that generate hidden operating costs. This book focuses on combining C++'s power and flexibility with high performance and scalability, resulting in the best of both worlds. Specific topics include temporary objects, memory management, templates, inheritance, virtual functions, inlining, reference-counting, STL, and much more. With this book, you will have a valuable compendium of the best performance techniques at your fingertips. 0201379503B04062001

Static Headspace Gas Chromatography

Autor: Bruno Kolb
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0471914568
File Size: 16,20 MB
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The only reference to provide both current and thorough coverage ofthis important analytical technique Static headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) is an indispensabletechnique for analyzing volatile organic compounds, enabling theanalyst to assay a variety of sample matrices while avoiding thecostly and time-consuming preparation involved with traditionalGC. Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography: Theory and Practice has longbeen the only reference to provide in-depth coverage of this methodof analysis. The Second Edition has been thoroughly updated toreflect the most recent developments and practices, and alsoincludes coverage of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and thepurge-and-trap technique. Chapters cover: * Principles of static and dynamic headspace analysis, includingthe evolution of HS-GC methods and regulatory methods using staticHS-GC * Basic theory of headspace analysis-physicochemical relationships,sensitivity, and the principles of multiple headspaceextraction * HS-GC techniques-vials, cleaning, caps, sample volume,enrichment, and cryogenic techniques * Sample handling * Cryogenic HS-GC * Method development in HS-GC * Nonequilibrium static headspace analysis * Determination of physicochemical functions such as vaporpressures, activity coefficients, and more Comprehensive and focused, Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography,Second Edition provides an excellent resource to help the readerachieve optimal chromatographic results. Practical examples withoriginal data help readers to master determinations in a widevariety of areas, such as forensic, environmental, pharmaceutical,and industrial applications.

Improvement Of The Ozonation Process Through The Use Of Static Mixers

Autor:
Publisher: IWA Publishing
ISBN: 1843398486
File Size: 20,27 MB
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Among the known disinfectants, ozone has been demonstrated to be very effective in inactivating protozoans. Current and proposed regulations impose additional treatment requirements for Cryptosporidium parvum . These regulatory trends tend to place more stringent performance demands on disinfection systems and have therefore increased the need for improvements in the design. The static mixer offers one alternative method for improving the efficiency of the dissolution of ozone and optimizing its use in the disinfection process. The overall objective of this research was to quantify the potential benefits of ozone application through the use of static mixers in terms of increased transfer efficiency, disinfection capacity, and enhanced chemical reactions at laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale systems. Specific goals were to identify and quantify the effect of several water quality parameters and environmental/engineered factors on the disinfection capacity of the ozone-static mixer system and assess bromate formation under optimum conditions for microbial inactivation.The results showed that a static mixer provided (1) rapid and efficient dissolution of gaseous ozone and (2) generation of a homogeneous dissolved ozone solution. These conditions led to higher CTs resulting in enhanced inactivation as compared to fine bubble diffusion contactors. It was found that a static mixer, when integrated with a well-designed, continuous-plug flow ozone contactor, could achieve excellent and predictable Cryptosporidium parvum inactivation. In such systems, applying low ozone doses (GBP 0.5 mg O3/mg C) combined with a pH of GBP 7.0 can provide adequate microbial inactivation while keeping bromate formation below the current MCL (10 ppb. Originally published by AwwaRF for its subscribers in 2003 This publication can also be purchased and downloaded via Pay Per View on Water Intelligence Online - click on the Pay Per View icon below

Optimal Control Theory And Static Optimization In Economics

Autor: Daniel LĂ©onard
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521337465
File Size: 17,30 MB
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Optimal control theory is a technique being used increasingly by academic economists to study problems involving optimal decisions in a multi-period framework. This book is designed to make the difficult subject of optimal control theory easily accessible to economists while at the same time maintaining rigor. Economic intuition is emphasized, examples and problem sets covering a wide range of applications in economics are provided, theorems are clearly stated and their proofs are carefully explained. The development of the text is gradual and fully integrated, beginning with the simple formulations and progressing to advanced topics. Optimal control theory is introduced directly, without recourse to the calculus of variations, and the connection with the latter and with dynamic programming is explained in a separate chapter. Also, the book draws the parallel between optimal control theory and static optimization. No previous knowledge of differential equations is required.

Static Analysis

Autor: Jens Palsberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642032362
File Size: 27,11 MB
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Static Analysis, SAS 2009, held in Los Angeles, CA, USA in August 2009 - co-located with LICS 2009, the 24th IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science. The 21 revised full papers presented together with two invited lectures were carefully reviewed and selected from 52 submissions. The papers address all aspects of static analysis including abstract domains, abstract interpretation, abstract testing, compiler optimizations, control flow analysis, data flow analysis, model checking, program specialization, security analysis, theoretical analysis frameworks, type based analysis, and verification systems.

Static Analysis

Autor: Kwangkeun Yi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540377565
File Size: 15,72 MB
Format: PDF
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Static Analysis, SAS 2006. The book presents 23 revised full papers together with the abstracts of 3 invited talks. The papers address all aspects of static analysis including program and systems verification, shape analysis and logic, termination analysis, bug detection, compiler optimization, software maintenance, security and safety, abstract interpretation and algorithms, abstract domain and data structures and more.

Static Analysis

Autor: Radhia Cousot
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642157688
File Size: 21,82 MB
Format: PDF
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Static Analysis, SAS 2010, held in Perpignan, France in September 2010. The conference was co-located with 3 affiliated workshops: NSAD 2010 (Workshop on Numerical and Symbolic Abstract Domains), SASB 2010 (Workshop on Static Analysis and Systems Biology) and TAPAS 2010 (Tools for Automatic Program Analysis). The 22 revised full papers presented together with 4 invited talks were carefully reviewed and selected from 58 submissions. The papers address all aspects of static analysis including abstract domains, bug detection, data flow analysis, logic programming, systems analysis, type inference, cache analysis, flow analysis, verification, abstract testing, compiler optimization and program verification.